101 Facts… Titanic

101 Facts… Titanic! WebBook by IP Factly

Contents

About the Titanic
The Voyage
The Sinking
After the Sinking
The Investigation
The Wreck
Final Facts
Photo Credits

About the Titanic

01-RMS_Titanic_3

RMS Titanic departing Southampton on April 10, 1912

The idea of building the Titanic was conceived on April 30, 1907 by J. Bruce Ismay and William James Pirrie during a dinner at Lord Pirrie’s London House.

The Titanic was given a lot of titles such as “The Ship of Dreams”, “Last Word in Luxury” and “Millionaire’s Special”.

The Titanic was built on yard number 401 at Hartland and Wolff Shipyard in Belfast, Ireland.

The Titanic was one of the largest ships of her time. It was 883 feet (269.1 meters) long!

02-Vergleich_Titanic

Size comparison of the Titanic

From the top of the funnels to the bottom of the ship, the Titanic stood at a height of 181.4 feet (53.3 meters).

The Titanic had a width of 92 feet(28 meters).

Overall, the Titanic had 416 First Class rooms, 162 Standard Class rooms and 262 Third Class accommodations.

Titanic’s huge engines were fueled by coal. On average, the ship consumed around 825 tons of coal per day.

03-boiler

Titanic Boiler display

The Titanic was powered by 29 boilers heated to extreme temperatures by 159 coal-burning furnaces.

The ship had 4 funnels and each stood from the deck at a towering height of 81.5 feet (24.8 meters).

The Titanic had 3 propellers – two 3 x 10 inch (7 x 25 centimeter) blades on the outside and a 4 x 6 inch (10 x 15 centimeter) blade at the center.

03a-Titanic_stern_and_rudder

Titanic stern and rudder. A man can be seen at the very bottom of the picture.

The ship has 2 anchors and each weighed more than 15 tons!

The main anchor of the ship was so heavy that it required 20 horses just to transport it!

The official number of the ship was 131, 428.

The Titanic was built and operated by the shipping company White Star Lines.

04-Whitestarline

White Star Line logo

It took the company three years to build the Titanic.

When the Titanic was under construction, thousands of people believed that the ship was unsinkable. But the April 1912 disaster proved them all wrong.

More than 3 million rivets were used during the construction of the Titanic.

Eight workers were killed during the construction of the ship.

05-Titanic_under_construction

Titanic under construction

14,000 men worked both day and night during the construction of the Titanic.

The average salary of each worker at that time was the equivalent of $2.74 per week.

The Titanic was launched on May 31, 1911 at 12:15 PM.

06-RMS_Titanic_ready_for_launch,_1911

Titanic ready for launch, 1911

It was launched at slipway number 2 of the Harland and Wolff Shipyard.

To be sure of a smooth launch, more than 22 tons of soap were used to coat the slipway.

Five tug boats pulled the Titanic into the water during its launch.

07-Titanic_launched_at_Belfast

Titanic launched at Belfast on 31 May 1911

An estimated 100,000 people attended the historic launching of the Titanic.

The Titanic had 4 restaurants which could accommodate more than 550 diners at any time.

08-Titanic_A_La_Carte_restaurant

The A La Carte restaurant aboard the RMS Titanic from the “White Line Triple Screw Steamers” booklet, 1912

Aside from restaurants, the ship also had 2 barber shops, 2 libraries, 3 galleys, a gymnasium and a full-length swimming pool.

09-Titanic's_first_class_gymnasium_(colorized)

Colorized version of photo of Titanic’s first class gymnasium

The total cost of building the Titanic was $7,500,000.

The Titanic and her sister ships were called Olympic-class ocean liners.

Titanic had two sister ships. They were named Olympic and Britannic.

The Britannic hit a mine and sank during World War I on the 21st November 1916.

10-HMHS_Britannic

HMHS Britannic seen during World War I

The Olympic had a long and useful life and was even a troopship during World War.

The Olympic sailed from 1911 until her retirement in 1935, by which time she had voyaged 257 times from Southampton, England to New York.

11-Olympic_and_Titanic

Titanic (right) moved out of drydock so the Olympic (left) could replace a propeller

The Voyage

Titanic started its maiden voyage to New York on April 10, 1912 at 12 noon.

The original sailing date was actually supposed to be March 20, 1912, but it was postponed because the Olympic (the Titanic’s sister ship) had collided with the Royal Navy Cruiser Hawke.

Edward J. Smith was the captain in charge of the Titanic. He had also been the captain of the Olympic when it crashed!

12-EJ_Smith

Edward J. Smith, captain of the Titanic (the photograph was taken aboard the Olympic)

Before sailing to New York, the Titanic sailed first to Southampton and stayed there for 6 days.

The intended distance to be covered by the ship’s maiden voyage to New York was 2890 nautical miles.

13-Titanic-Southampton

Titanic at the docks of Southampton, April 1912

The shipping company and the crew expected the journey to be completed in 137 hours.

The Titanic had been cruising for four days when it collided with an iceberg in the Atlantic.

During its voyage, there were 2223 people (both passengers and crews) aboard the Titanic.

Thirteen of the 1000 passengers aboard the Titanic were honeymooners.

During the 1900s, cats were commonly taken aboard ships for good luck. Records say that there were no cats taken aboard the Titanic during its voyage.

The First Class accommodations on the Titanic cost around $4350.

14-Titanic_Grand_Staircase

Grand Staircase of the RMS Titanic from the “White Line Triple Screw Steamers” booklet, 1912

The Standard Class accommodations cost around $1750, while the Third Class passage was priced at $30.

Reports show that the estimated total value of cash, jewelry and bonds carried by the Titanic’s passengers was around $6,000,000!

When the Titanic set sail, it carried more than 1500 bottles of wine, 36,000 oranges, 1750 quarts of ice cream, 8000 cigars and much more!

The Sinking

For over ten years, the White Star Line company had carried more than 2 million passengers across huge oceans. During those ten years, only 10 people were killed.

14a-Titanic_voyage_map

Route of Titanic’s voyage, 10-15 April 1912

The ship was 400 miles (640 kilometers) away from land when it collided with the iceberg.

The Titanic received a total of 6 iceberg warnings before the collision.

The Titanic sank 160 minutes after hitting the iceberg.

15-Titanic_iceberg

The iceberg suspected of having sunk the RMS Titanic. It was photographed by the chief steward of the liner Prinz Adalbert.

The ship took in water at a rate of 400 tons per minute after the collision.

Six of the ship’s forward compartments were ruptured by the collision. The ship was only designed to handle 4 damaged compartments.

The gash created by the collision was estimated to be 220 to 245 feet (67 to 75 meters).

16-Iceberg_and_titanic_(en)

How the iceberg broke the hull of the Titanic

The rescue vessel Carpathia was 58 miles (93 kilometers) away when it received a distress call from the Titanic.

The Carpathia rescued more than 700 Titanic survivors.

Although the Carpathia was only designed to travel up to 14 knots, the crew pushed the vessel to 17 knots in order for them to reach the Titanic faster.

Estimates showed that it took approximately 15 minutes before the Titanic hit the bottom of the ocean floor.

17-Stöwer_Titanic

Willy Stower engraving of the Titanic sinking 1912

The water temperature during this tragic disaster was around 28 degrees Fahrenheit (-2 Celsius).

The life expectancy of a person at this temperature is 15 to 45 minutes.

The sinking of the Titanic claimed 1517 lives.

Overall, 68 % of the people aboard the Titanic perished in this terrible disaster.

17a-The_Sad_Parting_-_no_caption

“The Sad Parting” 1912

The youngest known victim was Sidney Leslie Goodwin. He was only 19 months old when the ship sank.

685 (around 78%) of the ship’s crew died in the accident.

The iceberg that hit the Titanic was just one of the estimated 300 icebergs in the North Atlantic in April of 1912.

According to survivors, the approximate height of the iceberg that hit the Titanic was 100 feet (30.5 meters) above sea level.

Only one tenth of the iceberg’s total mass was visible when the Titanic sank.

The original number of lifeboats planned for the Titanic was 40 (the ship could carry up to 64 lifeboats). However, the company reduced it to 20 so the deck would look more organized.

18-Leaving_the_sinking_liner

Painting called “Leaving the sinking liner” by Charles Dixon

Out of the 20 lifeboats, only 16 were launched when the Titanic sank.

The lifeboats could each carry 65 people but most of them were launched half-full when the Titanic sank. The first lifeboat that was launched carried just 28 passengers.

Overall, there were 472 lifeboat spaces that were left unused during the tragic accident.

19-Titanic_lifeboat

Last lifeboat successfully launched from the Titanic (photo taken by passenger of the Carpathia)

As the Titanic was sinking, its wireless operator, Jack Phillips, sent out two distress signals — CQD and SOS. The “CQ” is a general call and the “D” means distress. SOS, on the other hand, means “Save Our Ship”.

One of the most famous people who died in the accident was John Jacob Astor. When his body was recovered, the rescuers found a gold watch, a diamond ring, a gold pencil and $2240 in bank notes.

20-John_Jacob_Astor_1909

John Jacob Astor in 1909

After the Sinking

About 333 dead bodies were recovered from the sea after the Titanic’s sinking. The remaining passengers were never found.

The Titanic Relief Fund raised approximately $564,000 for the Titanic survivors.

In today’s terms, the equivalent value of the Titanic Relief Fund would be approximately 27 million dollars.

To honor his bravery, King George V knighted the Carpathia’s captain, Arthur Rostron. Rostron also received the U.S. Congressional Medal of Honor and the American Cross of Honor.

21-Molly_brown_rescue_award_titanic

Captain Arthur Henry Rostron being awarded the trophy cup for his service in the rescue of the Titanic, 29 May 1912.

The Carpathia continued its faithful service until it was torpedoed by a German U-boat during World War 1 on July 17, 1918.

22-Carpathia-54

The Carpathia docked in New York City after the rescue of the survivors of the Titanic, 1912

The Investigation

During the investigation, some reports said that the Titanic’s captain, Edward Smith, had ignored several iceberg warnings during the trip.

It was also revealed that the Titanic never slowed down despite the fact that it was traveling in an iceberg-prone area. As a matter of fact, it was traveling at around 22.5 knots (just 0.5 knots below its top speed) when it hit the iceberg.

The United States investigated the Titanic incident from April 19 to May 25, 1912.

The Titanic investigation was headed by Senator William Alden Smith.

More than 80 people were interviewed during the investigation.

The lifeboats on the Titanic could only carry 33% of the total passengers aboard the ship. It was reported that this was one of the major reasons why so many people had died during the accident.

In some reports, it was stated that the ship the Californian was actually only 20 miles (32 kilometers) away from the Titanic when it sank. However, the ship never responded and sailed away.

It was also reported that the Titanic was not thoroughly inspected for maritime safety before it sailed for New York.

At the end of the investigation, the U.S. investigators blamed the British Board of Trade for the lack of regulations and maritime standards.

Captain Edward Smith’s actions and the Californian’s abandonment of its duty to rescue those who are in distress also received considerable attention from the investigating committee.

As a result of the investigation, many safety reforms and regulations were established all over the world to make sure that the tragic sinking of the Titanic would never happen again.

23-Time_To_Get_Busy

Cartoon titled “Time To Get Busy”. Public opinion forced politicians to act on shipping regulations.

The Wreck

To date, more than 6000 artifacts have been recovered from the Titanic’s wreck.

Debris from the Titanic covered more than 1000 acres (40.5 hectares) of seabed.

It took 74 years to discover the Titanic’s wreck.

The ship was rediscovered on July 14, 1985.

24-Titanic_wreck_bow

RMS Titanic photographed by the ROV Hercules, June 2004

The Titanic’s wreck was discovered lying about 2.3 miles (3.75 kilometers) below the water’s surface.

Many experts say the raising the whole wreck of the Titanic from the ocean floor is still far from possible.

During a talk about the recovering of the Titanic’s wreck, one of the ideas suggested was filling the entire hull with ping-pong balls so it would float.

Final Facts

A fictional love story set on the Titanic was released in 1997 and became one of the most popular movies in Hollywood history.

The movie “Titanic” focuses on the love story of Jack (Leonardo DiCaprio) and Rose (Kate Winslet). The film earned more than $1.8 billion worldwide.

If you’ve watched the 1997 movie “Titanic”, you might have noticed that the ship’s band continued playing as the ship was sinking. This was based on fact – the musicians were later called the “Heroic Musicians of the Titanic”.

These heroic musicians were: Theodore Ronald Brailey, Roger Marie Bricoux, John Frederick Clarke, Wallace Hartley, John Law Hume, Georges Krins, Percy Taylor and John Wesley Woodward. Monuments of these musicians were erected in Australia and Southampton.

25-Titanic_Band

Photographs of the Titanic’s musicians published by the Musicians Union after the sinking

Fourteen years before the ship’s tragic accident, US author Morgan Robertson wrote a novel titled Futility. It was about an ocean liner named Titan that sank after colliding with an iceberg.

Two dogs survived the tragic Titanic disaster. Both of them were taken by their masters to the lifeboats in the middle of the chaos and confusion.

In 1998, several Titanic enthusiasts planned to build an exact replica of the Titanic. The entire project would have cost around $500 million with each passenger paying at least $10,000 for a ticket. However, the project fell through and a new Titanic was never built.

The 100-year anniversary of the Titanic sinking was commemorated all over the world on April 12, 2012.

The legacy of the Titanic continues on through the efforts of RMS Titanic Inc. The company holds several exhibits showcasing hundreds of artifacts recovered from the wreck. In the exhibit, some of the actual rooms of the Titanic have been reconstructed to help people experience what it was like to travel aboard the majestic ship.

26-RMS_Titanic_Ad_April_10,_1912

New York Times advertisement for the intended sailing of RMS Titanic from New York to England on April 20, 1912

Photo Credits

Image01 RMS Titanic departing Southampton on April 10, 1912

Image02 Size comparison of the Titanic by Wikisearcher cc3.0

Image03 Titanic Boiler display (actual size) by cliff1066 cc2.0

www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/3279469678/

creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en

Image03a Titanic stern and rudder. A man can be seen at the very bottom of the picture.

Image04 White Star Line logo by Whistlerpro cc3.0

Image05 Titanic under construction

Image06 Titanic ready for launch, 1911

Image07 Titanic launched at Belfast on 31 May 1911

Image08 The A La Carte restaurant aboard the RMS Titanic from the “White Line Triple Screw Steamers” booklet, 1912

Image09 Colorized version of photo of Titanic’s first class gymnasium

Image10 HMHS Britannic seen during World War I

Image11 Titanic (right) moved out of drydock so the Olympic (left) could replace a propeller.

Image12 Edward J. Smith, captain of the Titanic (the photograph was taken aboard the Olympic)

Image13 Titanic at the docks of Southampton, April 1912

Image14 Grand Staircase of the RMS Titanic from the “White Line Triple Screw Steamers” booklet, 1912

Image14a Route of Titanic’s voyage, 10-15 April 1912 by Prioryman cc2.0

Image15 The iceberg suspected of having sunk the RMS Titanic. It was photographed because of the red paint on it by the chief steward of the liner Prinz Adalbert.

Image16 How the iceberg broke the hull of the Titanic by MechBrowman, Rogilbert, Liftarn

Image17 Willy Stower engraving of the Titanic sinking 1912

Image17a “The Sad Parting” 1912

Image18 Painting called “Leaving the sinking liner” by Charles Dixon

Image19 Last lifeboat successfully launched from the Titanic (photo taken by passenger of the Carpathia)

Image20 John Jacob Astor in 1909

Image21 Captain Arthur Henry Rostron being awarded the trophy cup for his service in the rescue of the Titanic, 29 May 1912.

Image22 Carpathia docked in New York City after the rescue of the survivors of the Titanic, 1912

Image23 Cartoon titled “Time To Get Busy”. Public opinion forced politicians to act on shipping regulations.

Image24 RMS Titanic photographed by the ROV Hercules, June 2004 (NOAA/IFE/URI)

Image25 Photographs of Titanic’s musicians published by the Amalgated Musicians Union after the sinking.

Image26 New York Times advertisement for the intended sailing of RMS Titanic from New York to England on April 20, 1912.

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